Writing & Completing Reports & Proposals

Writing Reports & Proposals

  • Adapting to your audience
    • you’ attitude is very important
    • Adjust the formality
    • Less formal : speak as the first person to the readers
    • More formal : use impersonal journalism
  • Composing reports
    • Make sure the contents accurate, complete, balanced, clear & logical, & documented properly
    • Main sections of a report :
      • Introduction
        • Authorization
        • Problem/opportunity/purpose
        • Scope
        • Background
        • Sources & methods
        • Definitions
        • limitations
      • Body
        • Problem/opportunity’s explanations
        • Facts, statistical evidence & trends
        • Result of studies
        • Discussion & analyses
        • Procedures
        • Advantages, disadvantages, costs & benefits of action
        • Methods & approaches
        • Criteria for evaluating alternatives
        • Conclusion & recommendations
        • Supporting reasons
      • Close
        • Depends on report type
        • Direct approach : summary of key points
        • Indirect approach : present conclusion & recommendations
        • State clearly who in charge for follow up if any
  • Composing proposal
    • Introduction
      • Background or statement of the problem
      • Solution
      • Scope
      • Organization
    • Body
      • Proposed solution
      • Work plan
      • Statement of qualifications
      • Costs
    • Close
      • Summarizes key points
      • Emphasizes the benefits
      • Restates why you & your firm are good choice
      • Ask for decision
  • Helping readers find their way
    • Heading or links
    • Transitions
    • Previews & reviews
  • Using technology to craft reports & proposals
    • Templates
    • Linked & embedded documents
    • Electronic forms
    • Electronic documents
    • Multimedia documents
    • Proposal-writing software

Illustrating Your Reports with Effective Visuals

  • Visual literacy – ability to create effective images & to interpret images correctly
  • The principles :
    • Consistency – visual parallelism
    • Contrast – differences & similarities
    • Balance – formal @ informal
    • Emphasis – dominant visual is represent the most important information
    • Convention
    • Simplicity
  • Choosing the right visual for the job
    • Presenting data
      To present individual, exact values
      • Table
      To show trends in one or more variables, or the relationship between those variables, over time
      • Line chart
      • Bar chart
      To compare 2 or more sets of data
      • Bar chart
      • Line chart
      To show frequency or distribution of parts in a whole
      • Pie chart
      To show massive data sets, complex quantities or dynamic data
      • Data visualization
    • Presenting information, concepts & ideas
To show geographic relationships or comparisons
  • Map
To illustrate processes or procedures
  • Flowchart
  • Diagram
To show conceptual or spatial relationships
  • Drawing
To show realistic
  • Photograph
To show processes, transformations & so on in action
  • Animation
  • Video

Completing Reports & Proposals

  • Revising reports & proposals
  • Parts of a formal report :
    • Prefatory parts
      • Cover
      • Title fly
      • Title page
      • Letter of authorization
      • Letter of transmittal
      • Letter of acceptance
      • Table of contents
      • List of illustrations
      • Synopsis or executive summary
    • Text parts
      • Introduction
      • Body
      • Summary
      • Conclusions
      • Recommendations
      • Notes
    • Supplementary parts
      • Appendixes
      • Bibliography
      • Index
  • Parts of a formal proposal :
    • Prefatory parts
      • Cover
      • Title fly
      • Title page
      • Request for proposal
      • Letter of transmittal
      • Table of contents
      • List of illustrations
      • Synopsis or executive summary
    • Text parts
      • Introduction
      • Body
      • Summary
    • Supplementary parts
      • Appendixes
  • Proofread your reports & proposals
    • Look for inconsistencies, errors & missing components
    • Make sure visuals are positioned correctly
    • Have someone else to proofread
  • Distributing your reports & proposals
    • Physical distribution – professional courier or deliver in person
    • Electronic distribution – PDF format

Tinggalkan Jawapan

Masukkan butiran anda dibawah atau klik ikon untuk log masuk akaun:

WordPress.com Logo

Anda sedang menulis komen melalui akaun WordPress.com anda. Log Out / Tukar )

Twitter picture

Anda sedang menulis komen melalui akaun Twitter anda. Log Out / Tukar )

Facebook photo

Anda sedang menulis komen melalui akaun Facebook anda. Log Out / Tukar )

Google+ photo

Anda sedang menulis komen melalui akaun Google+ anda. Log Out / Tukar )

Connecting to %s