Arkib

Applying & Interviewing for Employment

Writing Application Letters & Other Employment Messages

  • Application/Cover letter
    • To let readers know what you are sending, why you are sending it & how they can benefit from reading it
    • Keep your letter straightforward, fact based, short, positive, & professional
    • Make sure your opening paragraph state a clear reason for writing & give the reader a reason to keep reading it
    • Use the middle section to present more of your strengths
    • Do not bring up salary unless the recipient has asked you to include it
    • Respectfully ask for specific action in the final paragraph where the reader easy to respond
  • Application follow-up
    • When no response within a month, follow up with a second message so the company know you are still interested

Understanding the Interviewing Process

  • Typical sequence of interviews :
    • Screening stage – try to differentiate yourself with other candidates
    • Selection stage – show how your skills & attributes can help the company
    • Final stage
  • Common types of interviews
    • Structured interviews – follows a set sequence of questions, answers from candidates can be compared
    • Unstructured interviews – open-ended interview, question based on candidate’s response
    • Panel interview – candidate will meet several interviewers at once
    • Group interview – some candidates will meet with one or more interviewers at once
    • Behavioral interviews – candidates are asked to describe how they handled situations from their past
    • Situational interviews – candidates are asked to explain how they would handle various hypothetical situations
    • Working interviews – candidates will perform work-related task
    • Stress interviews – candidates are asked questions design unsettle to see how they manage the stress
  • Interview media
    • In-person conversation
    • Virtual meetings
    • Telephone interviews
    • E-mail/Instant message
    • Video interview
  • What employers look for in an interview
    • Whether you can handle the responsibilities of the position
    • Whether you will be a good fit with the organization & the target position
  • Pre employment testing & background checks
    • Integrity tests
    • Personality tests
    • Job skills tests
    • Substance tests
    • Background checks

Preparing for Job Interview

  • Learn about the organization
  • Think ahead about questions
    • Common employer’s questions :
      • Hardest decision ever made
      • Greatest weakness
      • Where you will be 5 years from now
      • Dislike of previous job
      • Something about yourself
    • Ask yourself :
      • Are these my kind of people?
      • Can I do this work?
      • Will I enjoy the work?
      • Is the job what I want?
      • Does the payment worthy?
      • What kind of person would I be working for?
      • What sort o future can I expect with this organization?
  • Bolster your confidence
  • Polish your interview style (clarity & nonverbal behavior)
  • Look good/well groomed
  • Be ready

Interviewing for Success

  • The warm-up
    • Body language is very important
    • Sit when you are asked to do so
    • Let the interviewer start the discussion
  • The question-and-answer stage
    • Listen carefully before you answer
    • Pay attention to verbal & nonverbal messages
    • Handle the discriminatory questions well
  • The close
    • Conclude with courtesy & enthusiasm
    • Salary negotiation

Following Up After an Interview

  • Write thank-you message within 2 days of the interview
  • Make an inquiry if there are no decision by the promised date or within 2 weeks
  • Request for time extension if needed
  • Reply the job offer by letter of acceptance within 5 days
  • Decline a job offer tactfully
  • For resignation, write a gracious & professional style letter

Building Career & Writing Resumes

Securing Employment in today’s Job Market

  • Understanding employer’s approach to the employment process
    • Process of employment search :
      1. Build toward career
      2. Prepare resume & other employment message
      3. Understand interview process
      4. Prepare for interview
      5. Participate in interview
      6. Follow-up & accept offer
    • How organizations prefer to find new employees :
      1. Look for someone inside the organization
      2. Rely on contacts & personal recommendations
      3. Hire an employment agency or search them
      4. Review unsolicited resume
      5. Solicit resumes through advertising
  • Organizing your approach to the employment process
    • Staying abreast of business & financial news
    • Researching specific companies
    • Networking (informal connections for business contacts)
    • Seeking career counseling

Preparing Resumes

Resume – written summary of a person’s education, employment background, & job qualifications

  • Planning your resume
    • Analyze the situation – purpose is to get an interview
    • Gather information – about the target industries, various job
    • Select the right medium – usual paper, electronic text
    • Organize information – highlights strengths, chronological approach is recommended
  • Types of resume :
    • The chronological resume
      • Dominated by works experiences
      • Most space for most recent positions
      • Advantages :
        • Familiar to the employers
        • Easy to find information
        • Highlights career progression
        • Shows employment continuity & stability
    • The functional/skills resume
      • Emphasizes skills & capabilities
      • Not really preferred by most employers
    • The combination resume
      • Includes the best features of the chronological & functional approaches
      • Group your strengths & list your experiences chronologically
      • Disadvantages :
        • Tends to be longer than chronological resume
        • Can be repetitious in skills & job experiences
  • Writing your resume
    • Keep your resume honest
    • Adapt your resume to your audience
    • Compose your resume using simple & direct style
    • Information included :
      • Name & contact information
      • Introductory statement
        • Career objective
        • Qualifications summary
        • Career summary
      • Education
      • Work experience, skills & accomplishments
      • Activities & achievements
      • Personal data & references
  • Completing your resume
    • Revise your resume, avoid :
      • Too long or too wordy
      • Too short or unclear
      • Difficult to read
      • Poorly written
      • Displaying weak understanding of the particular industry
      • Poor-quality printing
      • Many grammar or spelling errors
      • Boastful
      • Gimmicky design
    • Producing your resume – simple, clean, & professional
    • Proofread your resume thoroughly
    • Distribute your resume based on the employer’s instructions
      • Traditional mailing
      • Fax
      • E-mail
      • Online posting

Developing Oral Presentations

Building Your Carrier with Oral Presentations

  • Oral presentations involve all your communication skills, from research through nonverbal communication
  • 3 steps writing process can help to create effective oral presentations

Planning Your Presentations

  • Analyze the situation
    • Variety audience mindset & how to deal with it :
      • Supportive – speak in relaxed, confident manner & confirm their beliefs
      • Interested but neutral – build credibility with confident & prepare for questions & challenges
      • Uninterested – think creatively to connect the messages with their aspect of life
      • Apprehensive/worried – treat their emotions with respect, use indirect approach
      • Hostile/aggressive – treat them with respect, no humor, provide complete information in calm
  • Select the right medium
    • Mostly live, in person presentations
    • Webcast
    • Screen casts
  • Organize the information
    • Define your main idea
    • Limit your scope
    • Choose your approach
    • Prepare your outline

Writing Your Presentations

  • Adapting to your audience
    • Involve speaking style & technology choices
  • Composing your presentation
    • Introduction
      • Affecting audience interest
      • Building your credibility
      • Previewing your messages
    • Body
      • Connecting your ideas
      • Holding your audience’s attention
    • Close
      • Restating your main points
      • Describing next steps
      • Ending on a strong note
  • Enhancing your presentation with effective visuals
    • Electronic presentations/Slide shows
    • Overhead transparencies
    • Chalkboards & whiteboards
    • Flip charts
    • Others – video recording, samples of products, models
  • Creating effective slides
    • Writing readable content
    • Designing graphics for slides
    • Selecting design elements
      • Color
      • Background designs & artwork
      • Foreground designs & artwork
      • Fonts & type styles
    • Adding animation & special effects
  • Successful online presentations :
    • Consider sending preview study materials ahead of time
    • Keep your presentations as simple as possible
    • Ask for feedback frequently
    • Consider the viewing experience from the audience member’s point of view
    • Make sure your audience can receive the sort of content you intend to use
    • Allow plenty of time for everyone to get connected & familiar with the screen there are viewing

Completing Your Presentations

  • Finalizing slides & support materials
  • Preparing to speak
  • Practicing your delivery
  • Overcoming anxiety
    • Prepare more material
    • Practice
    • Think positively
    • Visualize your success
    • Take a few deep breaths
    • Be ready
    • Be comfortable
    • Do not panic
    • Concentrate on your message & audience
    • Maintain friendly eye contact with audience
    • Keep going
  • Handle questions responsively

Writing & Completing Reports & Proposals

Writing Reports & Proposals

  • Adapting to your audience
    • you’ attitude is very important
    • Adjust the formality
    • Less formal : speak as the first person to the readers
    • More formal : use impersonal journalism
  • Composing reports
    • Make sure the contents accurate, complete, balanced, clear & logical, & documented properly
    • Main sections of a report :
      • Introduction
        • Authorization
        • Problem/opportunity/purpose
        • Scope
        • Background
        • Sources & methods
        • Definitions
        • limitations
      • Body
        • Problem/opportunity’s explanations
        • Facts, statistical evidence & trends
        • Result of studies
        • Discussion & analyses
        • Procedures
        • Advantages, disadvantages, costs & benefits of action
        • Methods & approaches
        • Criteria for evaluating alternatives
        • Conclusion & recommendations
        • Supporting reasons
      • Close
        • Depends on report type
        • Direct approach : summary of key points
        • Indirect approach : present conclusion & recommendations
        • State clearly who in charge for follow up if any
  • Composing proposal
    • Introduction
      • Background or statement of the problem
      • Solution
      • Scope
      • Organization
    • Body
      • Proposed solution
      • Work plan
      • Statement of qualifications
      • Costs
    • Close
      • Summarizes key points
      • Emphasizes the benefits
      • Restates why you & your firm are good choice
      • Ask for decision
  • Helping readers find their way
    • Heading or links
    • Transitions
    • Previews & reviews
  • Using technology to craft reports & proposals
    • Templates
    • Linked & embedded documents
    • Electronic forms
    • Electronic documents
    • Multimedia documents
    • Proposal-writing software

Illustrating Your Reports with Effective Visuals

  • Visual literacy – ability to create effective images & to interpret images correctly
  • The principles :
    • Consistency – visual parallelism
    • Contrast – differences & similarities
    • Balance – formal @ informal
    • Emphasis – dominant visual is represent the most important information
    • Convention
    • Simplicity
  • Choosing the right visual for the job
    • Presenting data
      To present individual, exact values
      • Table
      To show trends in one or more variables, or the relationship between those variables, over time
      • Line chart
      • Bar chart
      To compare 2 or more sets of data
      • Bar chart
      • Line chart
      To show frequency or distribution of parts in a whole
      • Pie chart
      To show massive data sets, complex quantities or dynamic data
      • Data visualization
    • Presenting information, concepts & ideas
To show geographic relationships or comparisons
  • Map
To illustrate processes or procedures
  • Flowchart
  • Diagram
To show conceptual or spatial relationships
  • Drawing
To show realistic
  • Photograph
To show processes, transformations & so on in action
  • Animation
  • Video

Completing Reports & Proposals

  • Revising reports & proposals
  • Parts of a formal report :
    • Prefatory parts
      • Cover
      • Title fly
      • Title page
      • Letter of authorization
      • Letter of transmittal
      • Letter of acceptance
      • Table of contents
      • List of illustrations
      • Synopsis or executive summary
    • Text parts
      • Introduction
      • Body
      • Summary
      • Conclusions
      • Recommendations
      • Notes
    • Supplementary parts
      • Appendixes
      • Bibliography
      • Index
  • Parts of a formal proposal :
    • Prefatory parts
      • Cover
      • Title fly
      • Title page
      • Request for proposal
      • Letter of transmittal
      • Table of contents
      • List of illustrations
      • Synopsis or executive summary
    • Text parts
      • Introduction
      • Body
      • Summary
    • Supplementary parts
      • Appendixes
  • Proofread your reports & proposals
    • Look for inconsistencies, errors & missing components
    • Make sure visuals are positioned correctly
    • Have someone else to proofread
  • Distributing your reports & proposals
    • Physical distribution – professional courier or deliver in person
    • Electronic distribution – PDF format

Understanding & Planning Reports & Proposals

Applying the 3 Steps Writing Process to Reports & Proposals

  • Categories of reports (with most common examples) :
    • Informational reports
      • Reports to monitor & control operations
      • Reports to implement policies & procedures
      • Reports to demonstrate compliance
      • Reports to document progress
    • Analytical reports
      • Reports to assess opportunities
      • Reports to solve problems
      • Reports to support decision
    • Proposals
      • Internal proposals
      • External proposals
  • Planning : analyze situation, gather information, select the right medium & organize information
  • Writing : adapt to audience & compose message
  • Completing : revise, produce, proofread & distribute the message

Supporting Your Messages with Reliable Information

  • Process of effective research :
    • Plan your research
    • Locate the data & information needed
    • Process the data & information you located
    • Apply your findings
    • Manage information efficiently
  • Planning your research
    • Develop problem statement
  • Locating data & information
    • Evaluating sources to avoid mistakes
    • Conducting secondary research
      • Information from library – newspapers, business books, directories, statistical resources, government publications, electronic database
      • Information from online
      • Document your resources properly
    • Conducting primary research
      • Surveys
      • Interviews
  • Using your research results
    • Quoting – reproduce the content
    • Paraphrasing – expressing someone else’s ideas in your own words
    • Summarizing – similar to paraphrasing but distills the content into fewer words
    • Conclusion – logical interpretation of facts & other information
    • Recommendation – suggestions on what to do about the information

Planning Informational Reports

  • Ways to organize informational reports :
    • Comparison
    • Importance
    • Sequence
    • Chronology
    • Geography
    • Category
  • Tips for effective website organization :
    • Plan your site structure & navigation before writing
    • Create links & pathways to allow readers explore more
    • Make sure the contents are easily readable & linked together logically

Planning Analytical Reports

  • Focusing on conclusion
    • Use direct approach
    • Support with solid reasons & evidence
  • Focusing on recommendations
    • Describe briefly the problem or opportunity
    • Introduce the benefits
    • List the steps required (recommendations)
    • Explain each step
    • Summarize the recommendations
  • Focusing on logical arguments
    • Use indirect approach
    • Rational path
    • Convince readers by demonstrating that everything adds up to your conclusion

Planning Proposals

  • There are many specific formats for proposals
  • Solicited proposals – prepared at the request of external parties that require products or services
  • Request for proposals (RFP) – a formal invitation to bid on their contracts
  • A good proposal explains what a project or course of action will involve, how much it will cost & how the recipient will benefit

Writing Persuasive Messages

  • Persuasion – the attempt to change someone’s attitudes, beliefs or actions

Using 3 Steps Writing Process for Persuasive Messages

  • Planning
    • Analyzing situation
      • Clarifying your purpose
      • Understand & categorize the audience needs (demographics, psychographics)
    • Gathering information
    • Selecting the right medium
      • Combining personal attention with technological reach
    • Organizing information
      • Limit the scope
      • Mostly use indirect approach
  • Writing
    • Use positive & polite language
    • Understand & respect cultural differences
    • Sensitive to the organizational cultures
    • Establish your credibility
  • Completing
    • Try to judge your argument objectively
    • Do not overestimate your credibility
    • Ask for advice from experienced colleagues

Developing Persuasive Business Messages

  • Strategies for persuasive business messages
    • Framing your arguments
      • AIDA model (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action)
    • Balancing emotional & logical appeals
      • Emotional appeals – connect with the reader’s feelings or sympathies
      • Logical appeals – based on the reader’s notions of reasons (analogy, induction or deduction)
    • Reinforcing your position
      • Use powerful words to convey your message
    • Anticipating objections
      • Avoid the common mistakes of using a hard sell, resisting compromise, relying solely on argumentation & assuming that persuasion is a one-time event
  • Common examples of persuasive messages
    • Persuasive request for action
    • Persuasive presentation of ideas
    • Persuasive claims & request for adjustments

Developing Marketing & Sales Messages

  • Strategies for marketing & sales messages
    • Assessing audience needs
    • Analyzing your competition
    • Determining key selling points & benefits
    • Anticipating purchase objections
    • Applying the AIDA model
    • Writing persuasive messages for social media
      • Facilitate community building
      • Initiate & respond to conversations within the community
      • Identify & support your champions (enthusiastic fans)
      • Do not rely on the news media to distribute your message
      • Use the AIDA model at the right time & places
    • Maintaining high standards of ethics, legal compliance & etiquette

Writing Negative Messages

  • Goals of negative messages :
    • Give the bad news
    • Ensure its acceptance
    • Maintain reader’s goodwill
    • Maintain organization’s good image
    • Reduce future correspondence on the matter

Using 3 Steps of Writing Process for Negative Messages

  • Planning :
    • Clear purpose
    • Information the audience need to know & accept
    • Select the right medium
    • Organize particularly
  • Writing :
    • Clear & sensitive
    • Use language that conveys respect
    • Avoid accusing tone
    • Use positive words
  • Completing :
    • Revise the content
    • Make sure everything is clear, complete & concise
    • Proofread to eliminate mistakes
    • Deliver promptly

Developing Negative Messages

  • Relevant questions in deciding whether to use direct or indirect approach
    • Will the bad news come as a shock?
    • Does the reader prefer short messages?
    • How important is the news to the reader?
    • Do you need to maintain a close working relationship with the reader?
    • Do you need to get the reader’s attention?
    • What is your organization’s preferred style
  • Using the direct approach effectively (when information have minimal personal impact)
    • Open with a clear statement of the bad news
    • Provide reasons & additional information
    • Close with a positive & respectful manner
  • Using the indirect approach effectively
    • Open with a buffer
    • Provide reasons & additional information
      • Detailed
      • Polite
      • Individualized
      • Unapologetic
      • Positive
    • Continue with a clear statement of the bad news
    • Positive close
      • Builds goodwill
      • Offers a suggestion for action
      • Provides a look toward the future

Exploring Common Examples of Negative Messages

  • Sending negative messages on routine business matters
    • Refusing routine request
    • Bad news about transactions
    • Refusing claims & request for adjustment
  • Sending negative employment messages
    • Refusing request for recommendation letters
    • Rejecting job applications
    • Giving negative performance reviews
    • Terminating employment
  • Sending negative organizational news
    • News of negative changes (ex : losing major contract)
    • Announcement of workforce reductions
    • Workplace accident